Diseases of the cornea

The integrity of the cornea is essential for sharp vision.

Diseases and dysfunctions of the cornea

The cornea is normally transparent with a smooth surface and a regular curvature. The integrity of the cornea is essential for sharp vision. However, there are a variety of corneal abnormalities such as doming abnormalities, opacities, infections, or injuries to the epithelium that can lead to reduced vision. Because of the good sensory innervation, diseases of the cornea are often accompanied by pain.

Examples of diseases of the cornea

Diseases of the cornea Without impairment

Corneal diseases

Inflammation of the cornea (keratitis and ulcer)

Many corneal damages are caused by inflammations, mostly by germs, such as bacteria or viruses. If left untreated, they can lead to corneal scarring and permanent visual deterioration.


Keratoconus is a pathological, cone-shaped protrusion of the cornea, which can progress in stages. Patients are often affected at a young age of 20-30 years. They perceive severe changes in their visual acuity that can no longer be improved with glasses.

Endothelial diseases (Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy)

Fuchs dystrophy is an inherited disease of the cornea of the eye.

Treatment of corneal diseases

There are different treatment methods that can be performed depending on the type and severity of the corneal inflammation.

The therapy is usually a local treatment, e.g. with antibiotic eye drops, ointment dressing or therapeutic contact lenses.

Apart from a drug therapy, which should be tried first, only surgical measures in the form of e.g. surface ablation with an excimer laser (phototherapeutic keratectomy) or corneal transplantation can be considered as therapy.

Optionally, the grafts can be performed mechanically or with a femtosecond or excimer laser.

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